Adequate knowledge of the in situ state of stress can be essential to the analysis of geotechnical systems. However, the measurement and prediction of k0 remain difficult. In particular, limited attention has been given to the evolution of k0 during the formation history of the soil and diagenetic processes such as mineral dissolution. Experimental and numerical results show that grain mass loss due to mineral dissolution produces a pronounced horizontal stress drop under zero lateral strain conditions; the state of stress may reach the active shear failure ka condition and internal shear planes may develop. While horizontal stress recovery often follows upon further dissolution, marked differences in fabric are observed between the pre and postdissolution soil structures.