Discussion to the paper by Giulia Viggiani and J. H. Atkinson, on the Interpretation of Bender Element Tests
byJ. Carlos Santamarina And M. A. Fram
Santamarina, J. C. and Fam, M. (1997a). "Discussion to the paper by Giulia Viggiani and J. H. Atkinson, on the Interpretation of Bender Element Tests." Geotechnique, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 873-875
Bender elements have surfaced as versatile transducers for low-strain testing of soils in a variety of cells and load conditions. However, lack of guidelines leads to different implementations among laboratories. The authors present an interesting evaluation of effective length and travel time determination. The purpose of this discussion is to contribute complementary information, summarizing our experience with bender elements in various short-term and long-term tests (a typical installation and examples of application are described in Fam & Santamarina (1995).